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CosmeticsCosmetics or Makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. Cosmetics, general term applied to all preparations used externally to condition and beautifies the body, by cleaning, coloring, softening, or protecting the skin, hair, nails, lips, or eyes. Perfumery is usually excluded from the field of cosmetics. Although perfumes are commonly manufactured in coordination with cosmetics. The use of cosmetics is worldwide and dates from the remotest antiquity. Although it is generally believed that cosmetics as they are now known originated in the Far East, the study of simple cultures indicates that forms of cosmetic beautification have been practiced in every part of the world. The war paint of the Native American, the tattooing and scarification practiced by many peoples (the Maori of New Zealand and numerous African cultures), and the use of woad (a blue dye used by ancient Britons to paint their bodies) are all forms of cosmetic adornment. A large variety of cosmetics are generally available today. Cold cream is an emulsion of various oils and waxes and water; it is employed to cleanse and soften the skin. Face powder and dusting powder are based on talcum (powdered magnesium silicate) and zinc oxide and are used to dry and give a satiny texture to the skin. Lipsticks, either applied directly or brushed on the lips, are made of cocoa butter or lanolin and are manufactured in an endless variety of shades, as are rouges, mixtures of red pigments and starch or finely powdered clay. Bath salts and other bath preparations combine water-softening agents such as sodium carbonate or borax with perfume; bath oils are also a popular skin-softening and perfuming aid. Nail polishes are lacquers or plastics available in many colors. Hair lotions and hair sprays are used to condition the hair, keep it in place, or make it glossy. Shampoos are based on soap or synthetic detergents. Hair-coloring dyes, tints, and rinses, available in many shades and colors, are widely used cosmetic products. Henna is a vegetable dye, used for centuries to impart a red tint to the hair. Weak solutions of hydrogen peroxide are often employed as hair bleaches. For coloring the eyebrows and eyelashes, mascara is generally used. This is a compound of gum and black, green, or blue pigment. Sulfides of calcium and barium have the property of removing hair from the skin and are generally the active agents in cosmetic depilatories. Bronzes are creams that impart a color to the skin similar to that of suntan. Whereas perfumes are not classified as cosmetics, deodorants are. Deodorants may contain an astringent such as aluminum sulfate, which closes the openings of the sweat glands. An antibacterial ingredient, hexachlorophene, was banned from deodorants in 1972. Cosmetics and perfumery are by no means confined to use by women. Grooming aids frequently used by men include powders, colognes, and lotions, particularly alcohol-based after-shave lotions; bay rum, a mixture of alcohol, oil of bay, and oil of orange, originally made with rum; hair tonics, often with an alcohol or quinine base; and deodorants. Annual retail sales of mens and womens toiletries in the U.S. today make cosmetic manufacturing a multibillion-dollar industry. Cosmetics are designed for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness and altering appearance of skin. There are an ever-growing number of ingredients included in cosmetics that are purported to be beneficial for the skin, but often little information on these ingredients is available.
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